Publications on International Relations

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism: Artificial distinction between climate change adaptation and development restricts access to climate finance for developing countries

E-paper

Urgently addressing the growing impact of climate change in developing countries, especially on the most poor and marginalized people and communities, requires a better understanding of what constitutes adaptation, how it applies in local contexts, and how to increase the quantity and quality of financing provided for such measures.

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism - Does data protection safeguard against gender-based risks in Southern Africa?

E-paper

The increasing data-driven nature of societies raises concerns about how to prevent data misuse and abuse that may harm individuals and communities, particularly marginalized groups. A feminist critique of the model law on data protection of the Southern African Development Community and the EU’s GDPR, however highlights the dangerous gaps that place women and gender-diverse people at risk.

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Debt Relief for a Green and Inclusive Recovery

Report

The Debt Relief for Green and Inclusive Recovery initiative of the Heinrich Böll Foundation, the Centre for Sustainable Finance at SOAS University London and the Boston University Global Development Policy Center presents its current refined proposal for concerted and comprehensive debt relief at the global level to promote a just transition to a low-carbon economy.

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism - Persistent turbulence in Turkey and the EU calls for restored cooperation for a post-pandemic world

E-paper

Turkey and multilateral institutions alike, including the European Union, were already struggling with political and economic crises in the years before the pandemic multiplied the sense of catastrophe. As they seek to pull themselves out of the depths of Covid-19, it is time to set aside the divisions that have long stalled progress for all of them, and seek recovery in cooperation and mutual benefit.

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism - Could South Africa, spurred by Covid-19, drive more equitable global trade norms?

E-paper

Major multilateral institutions have long claimed that their market-oriented trade rules reduce poverty and advance development. Instead, they hold back the developing world from a more human-centric, social-justice approach that it needs to reach its potential. South Africa has the potential to set an example of how a global “middle power” can drive change. The Covid-19 pandemic has provided extra impetus – and a test.

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism - India as archetype: What emerging data powerhouses need for effective information sharing

E-paper

The need for cross-border data sharing throughout the Covid-19 pandemic has shown that the future of multilateral threat management will hinge on steady yet flexible open-data publishing norms and multilateral data-transfer agreements. In many ways, India typifies the perspectives and needs of emerging economies related to data sharing, data flows, and related commercial regulation.

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism - Imbalanced foreign trade, debt, and investment in developing countries: The case of Georgia

E-paper

Georgia remains a developing country even three decades after its independence from the Soviet Union and despite its strategic location and abundant natural resources. It has benefited to a limited extent from foreign investment and relatively recent free-trade agreements with the EU and China. But its full emergence as an economically and politically resilient State has been hampered by modernization driven development agenda and neoliberal policies with too little regard for their social and environmental impacts in Georgia, as well as highpressure, counter-productive trade- and lending policies imposed by global powers such as the IMF, the EU, the United States, and China.

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism - Towards a “digital new deal” for Latin America: Regional unity for a stronger recovery

E-paper

The absence of an integrated digital market and a unified political vision for tech policy in Latin America and the Caribbean puts the countries of the region at risk of dependency on a foreign private sector for their digital transformation. The investment that will be required to recover from the pandemic offers a unique chance to break out of the current market logic and treat technology as critical social infrastructure that must be sustainable and requires citizen participation.

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Global perspectives on Covid-19 vaccination - Covid-19 vaccine access in the South Caucasus countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

E-paper

After the first cases of COVID-19 were detected in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia last spring, the three countries embarked on very different courses of action to tackle the virus. While Georgia moved to quickly close its borders and initiated a strict lockdown, Armenia and Azerbaijan were slower to respond, though both eventually instituted lockdowns of their own. Over the last year, other events in the region have overshadowed the pandemic to some extent.

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Global perspectives on Covid-19 vaccination - Access to the Covid-19 vaccine in Venezuela

E-paper

The outbreak of the pandemic could have spelled disaster for Venezuela, already two decades into a political, social, economic and health crisis. The combination of a collapsed national health system and economy, a complex humanitarian emergency, a continuous stream of migration, an internal political conflict with international ramifications, a population with high levels of malnutrition, has seriously hindered the development of a successful vaccination programme. Thus far,  Venezuela has administered the fewest number of Covid-19 vaccinations in relation to its population size of all the countries in South America.

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Global perspectives on Covid-19 vaccination - COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution in South Africa

E-paper

Health inequality increased sixfold in South Africa under COVID-19, suggesting that the crisis affected the health of the poor far more than the relatively well-off. Race is not a significant predictor of vaccine hesitancy, but trusting social media as an information source is positively correlated with vaccine hesitancy. South Africa has pushed hard against opposition to the proposal for a waiver of IP for COVID-19 technologies at the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

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Global perspectives on Covid-19 vaccination - Access to the Covid-19 vaccine in Israel

E-paper

The rate of COVID-19 vaccination in Israel is one of the highest in the world. However, vaccine rates are not evenly distributed among the different population groups. Arab citizens and the Ultra-Orthodox population, who have suffered the most from the pandemic, are vaccinated at lower rates than the general public. Moreover, social media disinformation campaigns that have characterized the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel, in general, and the vaccine, in particular, has been one of the causes of vaccine hesitancy.

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Global perspectives on Covid-19 vaccination - Covid-19 vaccination in Chile

E-paper

The Covid-19 pandemic has become Chile’s most consequential public health challenge in a century. Chile’s measures included guidance regarding, among other items, education, health (sick leaves, diagnoses, hospital capacity, partial and spatially targeted lockdowns), mass events, border controls, supply and transportation. Since then, the evolution of the disease in the country has been similar to that of other countries around the world, with periods when cases increased followed by periods when cases declined, yet without ever declining to a point when one would assume the emergency was over.

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism - Feminist, Decolonial Economic Solutions to Address Interconnected Global Crises

E-paper

The undeniable connections among the multiple crises that humanity faces today -- climate change, biodiversity loss, inequality, poverty, and the Covid-19 pandemic -- demand interconnected, rather than segmented, macro solutions. Responses must be systemic and address the structural dynamics and shortcomings of governance, economics and finance. A feminist and decolonial framing provides a lens for proposed reforms.

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism - Biometrics in Belgrade: Serbia’s Path Shows Broader Dangers of Surveillance State

E-paper

On the EU’s periphery, Serbia has deployed enough biometric surveillance technology from China’s Huawei for law enforcement and “Safe City” solutions to cover practically all of Belgrade’s public spaces. Public pressure has raised the bar for turning on the technology, but the alarming project illustrates the need for transparent regulation of such systems everywhere, to ensure the protection of fundamental human rights.

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism - Mobilizing resources urgently for climate action: overcoming longstanding challenges and learning from Covid-19

E-paper

The Covid-19 pandemic has shown that countries can marshal significant resources quickly and at scale in an emergency. The climate crisis requires no less. First and foremost, that means resolving longstanding issues of climate finance -- definitional disputes, access to financing, the obstacle of indebtedness, and underneath them all, trust that rich nations will deliver on their outstanding and new climate finance commitments. Only then can the international system ensure that the poorest and most vulnerable people, communities, and countries can make the necessary changes the whole world needs.

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Shaping the Future of Multilateralism - Africa’s free-trade area signals intent for a new kind of relationship with the EU

E-paper

The momentous African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), which went into effect on 1 January 2021, demonstrates the continent’s desire to carve its own economic destiny. But as Africa’s biggest trading partner, the European Union’s actions will have a strong impact on the project’s chances of success. The EU’s historical record suggests it would benefit from more serious listening to what its African partners want on trade.

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La régulation des plateformes numériques et la liberté d’expression en Afrique de l’Ouest

E-paper

Les pays africains ont de plus en plus accès à l’Internet haut débit, les questions liées à la neutralité de l’internet, à la régulation et à l’interopérabilité adéquate se posent, il est nécessaire de veiller à ce que les citoyens puissent exercer librement leurs droits. En tant qu’intermédiaires, les plateformes numériques peuvent mettre en relation, faciliter l’accès à l’information, à la liberté d’expression et de communication. Ce qui fait que la force des plateformes tient en grande partie à leur capacité à multiplier les flux d’informations collectées auprès de leurs utilisateurs.

The Liquidity and Sustainability Facility for African Sovereign Bonds

The Liquidity and Sustainability Facility for African Sovereign Bonds

Study

The aim of this paper is to contribute to an informed dialogue on the most appropriate forms of development finance. In view of the critical debt situation of African countries in the wake of the Covid-19 crisis, and of the longer-term ambition to deliver on the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement, this discussion is more vital than ever.

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EU-China Comprehensive Agreement on Investment

Study

This scoping paper compiled by focuses on the potential risks for the EU from enshrining rights for Chinese investors in Europe in an inter-national investment treaty. It emphasises these “defensive” interests, because investment treaties by their very nature restrict the ability of a state to regulate or even restrict foreign investment.

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Covid-19 Pandemic Case Study: Brazil

Case study

The Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil comes in the wake of the political polarisation that was accentuated in the 2014 presidential elections and the scientific denialism used by the current government of President Jair Bolsonaro. Experts estimate that the way the president handles the most serious health crisis in recent decades is a reflection of this scenario.

Covid-19 Pandemic Case Study - Ukraine

Covid-19 Pandemic Case Study: Ukraine

Case study

In Ukraine, especially vulnerable groups were hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. The situation has become even more challenging, considering the ongoing conflict in Eastern Ukraine and the unstable political system.

Covid-19 in the Global South - Nigeria

Covid-19 Pandemic Case Study: Nigeria

Case study

In Nigeria, the healthcare system was not prepared for the Covid-19 pandemic. Read more about how the pandemic affected a country where more than half the population lacks access to primary medical care while Nigerian doctors seek employment abroad.

Covid-19 Pandemic Case Study - Philippines

Covid-19 Pandemic Case Study: Philippines

Case study

With 2020 about to end, the buoyant picture of a surging Philippines economy has been replaced by the image of a country unable to find its way out of a terrible health and economic crisis.

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Covid-19 Pandemic Case Study: Morocco

Case study

What are the impacts of the pandemic in Morocco? The main challenge ahead is economic recovery: getting the economy back on track, regenerating jobs, and attracting investments are at the top of the government’s priorities.

Radioactivity Under the Sand

E-Paper

More than half a century ago, France tested its first atomic bombs in the Algerian desert. This E-Paper examines the environmental and political legacy of these tests: a story of post-colonial injustice and radiological irresponsibility.

Closed ports, dubious partners

Closed Ports, Dubious Partners

E-Paper

This study shows that port closures are governed not only by the law of the sea and human rights law, but also by WHO law and that non-refoulement obligations continue to apply even in emergency situations while a derogation is not permissible under international law.

Multilateralism 2.0

E-paper

It is time to upgrade the current debate on multilateralism, to make it greener and more global. We tried to do just this at our 20th Foreign Policy Conference, which took place in Berlin on 30-31 January 2020. This reader provides some insights into our major topics, from trade to climate to security policy, with perspectives from South Africa, India, Brazil, the US and the EU.

Technical Standardisation

Technical standardisation, China and the future international order

E-paper

Technical standards have been a driving engine behind globalisation. In recent years, they run the risk of turning into a core subject of great power competition over high technology. While Europe has benefited from technical standards, it may suffer if standards turn into a matter of power rivalry. 

Western Balkan 6 Strategy Group for an effective EU-enlargement policy

Western Balkan 6 Strategy Group for an effective EU-enlargement policy

The “Strategy Group for a political, societal and economic European integration of the
Western Balkans Six” is a group of legal, historical and political researches from all WB6
countries organized by Heinrich Böll Stiftung’s Belgrade, Sarajevo and Berlin offices.
Its aim is to credibly advocate for a more effective European integration of the Balkans
in European as well as Balkan capitals.

Perspectives Asia: Asia for Future

Perspectives Asia: Asia for Future

While Asia is home to some of the fastest growing economies and some of the world’s top polluters, it is also one of the regions worst hit by climate change. Erratic weather patterns, extreme floods and droughts destroy people’s livelihoods, creating an increasing number of climate refugees. Climate change is not a distant problem; it is right at the doorstep of many Asians.

Securitization for Sustainability

Securitization for Sustainability

Study

The new consensus in international development circles focuses on private finance as the solution to pressing sustainability Securitization is at the core of international efforts to encourage private finance to invest in SDGs and other sustainability-related activities. This paper maps potential strategies that would guide the agenda of securitisation for sustainability.

From "Paymaster of Europe" to «Shaper of Europeʼs future»

E-Paper

Although the European Union is facing enormous political challenges, Germany has shown little initiative in European politics in recent years. Proposed reforms of other member states, such as France, have been mostly opposed on the grounds that «the German taxpayers» must not be even further burdened. This study investigates the factual and popular basis of this narrative.

Stabilization via change? The European Union’s support for human rights advocacy in Lebanon

Paper

Civil society is identified as a key partner for the European Union (EU) and receiver of financial support in the European Neighbourhood Policy, as civil society is closest to the citizen’s needs, for example in terms of human rights. However, the existing body of research questions whether such aspirations for human rights are compatible with the EU’s main priority in neighbourhood, stabilization. 

A Local Turn for European Refugee Politics

E-Paper

In this policy paper “A Local Turn for European Refugee Politics” the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung puts forward proposals for a more active role of the municipalities in refugee and asylum policy.

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Money against Migration

Study

The EU-Africa migration summit in Valletta in November 2015 gave birth to a new European funding instrument: the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa (EUTF). This study comes to the conclusion that the implementation of migration policy projects supported by EUTF funding primarily benefits the (wealthier) member states of the EU.

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2049: Open Future - Green European Journal

Publication

While the pace of the present day can cloud the vision, casting out our gaze to the future allows a bigger picture to emerge. This edition of the European Green Journal looks forward to imagine the Europe(s) to be in 2049.

Phantom Menace. The Politics and Policies of Migration in Central Europe

Study

Despite the presence of migration in the discourse of politicians, media and the general public in recent years, there is a persistent lack of facts about the life situations and motivations of newcomers to Europe. With this book the Heinrich Böll Foundation and the Institute for Public Affairs aim to contribute to a fact-based debate on the politics and policies of migration in Central Europe. 

What Is at Stake in the 2019 European Election?

Event report

The upcoming European election in 2019 might bring about an unprecedented political earthquake, already foreshadowed four years ago, blowing away the political centre altogether. What is likely to happen in the end: the feared come-back of nationalism or is there hope for a pro-European revival?

The Future of Transatlantic Relations

Two years after President Trump's election we have a look at the political, social and economical landscape, the changes in multilateral relations in the fields of trade, security policy as well as climate and energy. President Trump is at the same time a symptom and a cause for the divide that splits the US. But which position can the EU adopt in transatlantic relations? 

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Turkey’s new presidential system: what implications for EU-Turkey relations?

Event Report

In June 2018, the transformation of the political system from a parliamentary to a presidential one has become effective. The Turkish Parliament has been weakened and the political hierarchy with the President as the highest standing has been further strenghtened. But suspending accession talks would also suspend European support for more democracy.

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"The Oranges in Europe taste better"

Study

There are many reasons to migrate: This publication provides a forum for scientists from Pakistan, Somalia and El Salvador, people, who had to flee from Syria, Burundi and Malawi as well as migrants and activists from Niger and Senegal to emphasise how little we know about "causes of migration and flight". 

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What’s the Matter with Central Eastern Europe?

Event Report

Authoritarian rules in Hungary and Poland and corruption and criminality in Slovakia and the Czech Republic make Eastern Europe a problem child. What are the reasons behind the worrying developments and what are the main differences and similarities between political trends in Central Eastern and Western Europe? 

Are Things Getting Better in the Eurozone?

Event Report

The Come-Back of Portugal; Greece’s Attempt to Stand on its own Feet again; Macron’s Reform Proposals and Germany’s Lukewarm ResponseThe Come-Back of Portugal; Greece’s Attempt to Stand on its own Feet again; Macron’s Reform Proposals and Germany’s Lukewarm Response

Autonomy in Weapon Systems

Study

The future international security landscape will be critically impacted by the military use of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. Meaningful human control over weapon systems and the use of force must be retained.

Le Mali, cinq ans après le début de l'intervention: Une grande présence militaire moins de sécurité

Publication

Le Mali était un pays classique de grands récits, des mythes du Moyen Âge au socialisme africain de la jeune république en passant par le panafricanisme des pères et des mères de l'indépendance. Le Mali est aujourd'hui dépourvu de tout récit. Cinq années d'intervention militaire internationale n'ont apporté aucune sécurité à la population malienne. Les zones d'insécurité ne cessent de s'étendre à l'intérieur du pays.

Europe in Suspense: The German Coalition Thriller Continues

Event Report

The grand coalition which had governed Germany for four years suffered serious losses in the parliamentary election of 24 September 2017. Finally, almost five long months later, the outcome is a new grand coalition between CDU and SPD. While for Germany a new edition of the grand coalition might mean more of the same and could lead to more frustration among the voters and a growth of right-wing populism, what does it mean for a European Union ? 

All Circus, No Bread

Event Report

Populism seems the new power of modern democracies. It is tricky to define and argue against it since it takes profit from democratic structures but at the same time is its fierce enemy. How to define populism? What are causes and possible solutions? How to act against it?

Heading South - Rethinking the Eurozone

Study

How to redesign the Eurozone in order to enhance its chances of survival?  There are many alternatives that can and should be considered. A contribution on how to change the European Union's economic policy. 

Expert Workshop Eastern Partnership Policy

Our regional offices met with experts from the EU institutions, think tanks, NGO and the academic world to shed light on current challenges, changes and credibility  of the EU's Eastern Partnership.

 

The Referendums in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK in Light of Euroscepticism, Refugee Crisis and the Paris and Brussels Terror Attacks

A new ‘trilogy’ of referendums started with the Danish European Union opt-out referendum in December 2015, followed by the Dutch Ukraine-referendum in April and Brexit coming up in June. Paired with the recent terror attacks and the still ongoing refugee crisis, what does this mean for the future of the European Union? Is there still hope for a multi-cultural unified Europe?

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Identity and Exile: The Iranian Diaspora Between Solidarity and Difference

Study

Over five million Iranians are in exile – about 120,000 of which live in Germany. They are influencing political and cultural debates in Iran on a daily basis. The aim of this publication is to promote a process of reflection within the diaspora and provide an input concerning the role and potential of the diaspora community.

Euroscepticism: the root causes and how to address them

What structural and short-term factors fuel Euroscepticism? How to explain the growing phenomenon of Euroscepticism in France? How the national background affects the configuration of Euroscepticism? How to transform the Euroscepticism trend to “Europtimism”?

The Corporatist Economy and the Nanny State

To what extent should the state intervene in the economy? Political debates on this issue often follow a false dichotomy. We take for granted that the Left favours a high degree of state intervention, while  onservatives are associated with support for free markets. The important question is not the extent of state intervention but rather the nature of the legislation that we must adopt in order to best serve the interests of the broad majority.

To good neighbourliness!

Is the European Neighbourhood Policy compelled to define its role in Lebanon anew? Is ENP’s focal point to be shared values or stability? The paper gives recommendation for further improvement of the ENP regarding the case of Lebanon.