The majority of EU Member States do not have any formal China strategy papers. Some EU Member States and specific government ministries have adopted internal China strategies and guidelines that have not been officially released to the public. Commonly referred to as ‘China strategies’, these documents outline national positions on China, rather than concrete strategies for managing bilateral relations. Jacob Mardell mapped out the state of play of these strategies in EU27, UK and Switzerland.
Populism, nationalism, and an intensifying rivalry between the United States and China are testing the cooperation within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). As its 10 member States battle the effects of Covid-19 amid political and territorial crises, the group has struggled to overcome internal differences and address profound external challenges.
Turkey and multilateral institutions alike, including the European Union, were already struggling with political and economic crises in the years before the pandemic multiplied the sense of catastrophe. As they seek to pull themselves out of the depths of Covid-19, it is time to set aside the divisions that have long stalled progress for all of them, and seek recovery in cooperation and mutual benefit.