In 2015 the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung took part in the Commission’s consultation procedure on the new European Neighbourhood Policy. Our contribution was based on the results of an expert workshop in Brussels in which the relevant hbs offices and departments discussed their experiences and ideas with experts from the European Commission, the EEAS, the European Parliament, think tanks, NGOs and universities. The new ENP was presented in November 2015. Aiming at mobilising efforts to support inclusive economic and social development, creating job opportunities for youth was proclaimed a key measure of economic stabilisation. A new focus was put on stepping up work with partner countries in the security sector, mainly in the areas of conflict-prevention, counter-terrorism and anti-radicalisation policies. Safe and legal mobility on the one hand and tackling irregular migration, human trafficking and smuggling on the other were proclaimed further priorities. Cooperation on energy security and climate action was also proclaimed priority. In 2016 the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung organised two ENP-workshops, one on Eastern Partnership, which took place on 19 October, one (7 December) focused on the southern neighbourhood. Again, the relevant experts from the EU institutions, think tanks, NGO and the academic world were invited to meet with the regional hbs offices, the relevant departments and invited experts – all contributors to our web dossier Rebuilding the Neighbourhood – and discuss the challenges for ENP. As the (southern) neighbourhood of the EU has been developing in a way that makes it increasingly difficult to maintain or shape relationships what are the major challenges for this part of ENP?