The implementation of the intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) to the Paris agreement and the scaling-up of future ambition through the five-year review cycle will require actions at all levels (international, national, regional, local) and different actors (governments, civil society and private actors) to fulfil the commitments made in Paris and accelerate the pace of decarbonisation at global scale. The Lima-Paris Action managed to mobilize a multi-stakeholder movement, bringing together a large number of cities, private
actors and civil society organisations to scale up climate action and accelerate the uptake of innovative solutions.
Regions and cities could play a vital role in reaching national climate and energy targets, strengthening resilience adopting climate adaptation measures and cooperating towards a more sustainable future. The United Nations Development Programme estimated that 50% to 80% of climate adaptation and mitigation measures will be implemented on the subnational or local level. In addition, one third of the world’s remaining carbon budget could be determined by urban policy decisions in the next five years. At the same time, regions and cities represent the levels closest to the citizens and local communities. Building capacity at local level, peer-to-peer sharing among city practitioners, green twinning and exchange of best practices at local and regional level are paramount for unlocking the potential that cities and regions hold.